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Medicinal Cannabis Clinical Studies

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Association of the Cannabinoid Receptor Gene (CNR1) with ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD, Lu et. al. (2008 Dec.)

Cannabis Improves Symptoms of ADHD, P. Strohbeck-Kuehner and al., Cannabinoids (2008 Mar.)

Subtypes of Attention Deficit — Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use (PubMed)

Searching for a Neurobiological Basis for Self-Medication Theory in ADHD Comorbid With Substance Use Disorders (Pub Med)

Cannabidiol and clozapine reverse MK-801-induced deficits in social interaction and hyperactivity in Sprague-Dawley rats (PubMed)

Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students (PubMed)

Oral delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: A case report (PubMed)


Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy

Cannabis Use in HIV for Pain and Other Medical Symptoms

Marijuana Use and Its Association With Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Persons With Moderate to Severe Nausea

Pharmacological Treatment of Painful HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials


Changes in Endocannabinoid Receptors and Enzymes in the Spinal Cord of SOD1G93A Transgenic Mice and Evaluation of a Sativex®-like Combination of Phytocannabinoids: Interest for Future Therapies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Medical Marijuana Utilization and Perceived Therapeutic Value in Patients with ALS (P3.014)

Alzheimer’s Disease

Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids: Neuroprotection Mediated by Blockade of Microglial Activation (2005)

The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for Alzheimer’s disease.(2012)

Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids reduce microglial activation in vitro and in vivo: relevance to Alzheimer’s disease.

Activation of the CB2 receptor system reverses amyloid-induced memory deficiency

Marijuana’s Active Ingredient Shown to Inhibit Primary Marker of Alzheimer’s Disease

Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving toward the clinic

Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid Receptors RegulateMicroglial Cell Migration

Anorexia Nervosa

Leptin, ghrelin, and endocannabinoids: Potential therapeutic targets in anorexia nervosa (PubMed)

The role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders: Neurochemical and behavioural preclinical evidence (PubMed)

Anxiety and Depression

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug (PubMed)

Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis Sativa (PubMed)

Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients (PubMed)

Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder (PubMed)

Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: A review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence (PubMed)


Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis (PubMed)

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis (PubMed)

Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain (PubMed)


Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor

The role of cannabinoids in inflammatory modulation of allergic respiratory disorders, inflammatory pain and ischemic stroke (PubMed)

 Allergen challenge increases anandamide in bronchoalveolar fluid of patients with allergic asthma (PubMed)

Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol (PubMed)

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Mutations found in individuals with autism interfere with endocannabinoid signaling in the brain (Science Daily)

Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders (PubMed)

A novel approach to the symptomatic treatment of autism (Lester Grinspoon M.D., O’Shaughnessy’s)

Consequences of cannabinoid and monoaminergic system disruption in a mouse model of autism spectrum disorders (PubMed)

Targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of fragile X syndrome (PubMed)

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Cancer Studies


CBD as potential anticancer drug

CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms

The inhibitory effects of CBD on systemic malignant tumors

CBD inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1

Marijuana fights cancer and helps manage side effects

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma

The Influence of Biomechanical Properties and Cannabinoids on Tumor Invasion

Antitumorigenic targets of cannabinoids – current status and implications

Cannabinoids – a new weapon against cancer?


TRPV2 activation induces apoptotic cell death in human T24 bladder cancer cells: a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer


Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta9-THC on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival

Antitumor effects of CBD, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines

Systematic review of the literature on clinical and experimental trials on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in gliomas

CBD inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism

Id-1 is a key transcriptional regulator of glioblastoma aggressiveness and a novel therapeutic target

Triggering of the TRPV2 channel by cannabidiol sensitizes glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents

CBD inhibits proliferation and invasion in U87MG and T98G glioma cells through a multitarget effect

Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme

Synergistic responses between cannabidiol and DNA-damaging agents on the proliferation and viability of glioblastoma and neural progenitor cells in culture

Cannabis improved survival of patients with aggressive brain cancer in controlled clinical study


Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma

CBD induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells by coordinating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy

Pathways mediating the effects of CBD on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis

CBD as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells

Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDAMB-231 breast cancer cell migration

CBD-A mediated selective down-regulation of c-fos in highly aggressive breast cancer MDAMB-231 cells


Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer

Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of CBD

Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent


Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours

A comparative study on CBD-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells

Kaposi Sarcoma

CBD inhibits growth and induces programmed cell death in kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus-infected endothelium


CBD-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression

CBD-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells

Cannabidiol Reduces Leukemic Cell Size – But Is It Important?


CBD inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1C

COX-2 and PPAR-γ confer cannabidiol-induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells

Decrease of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 may contribute to the anti-invasive action of CBD on human lung cancer cells

Media ignored expert’s shocking findings that marijuana helps prevent lung cancer


Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain

Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial

Marijuana extract helps prevent chemo pain


Towards the use of non-psychoactive cannabinoids for prostate cancer

In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent


Anticancer activity of anandamide in human cutaneous melanoma cells

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: a pilot study of efficacy and safety.

Endocannabinoid anandamide mediates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

Crohn’s Disease

Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s

High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Australia: a prospective population-based Australian incidence study.

 Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn’s disease (PubMed)

Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis (PubMed)


The cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity.

The endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis and the etiopathology of metabolic disorders.

Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoids in Metabolic Disorders with Focus on Diabetes

Peripheral effects of the endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis: adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle.

Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

Endocrine Disorder

Endocannabinoid system participates in neuroendocrine control of homeostasis (PubMed)

Role of the endocannabinoid system in food intake, energy homeostasis and regulation of the endocrine pancreas (PubMed)

Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours (PubMed)

The role of the endocannabinoid system in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance (PubMed)


Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

Pure cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: a case report.

Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy.


Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?

Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life.

Cardiovascular and Heart Disease

Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? (PubMed)

Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion (PubMed)

Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy (PubMed)

IBD – Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Australia: a prospective population-based Australian incidence study.


Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: a brief overview.

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability.

Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis.

Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study.

Neuropathic Pain

The endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids, and pain. Rambam Maimonides medical journal, 4(4).

Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain.Journal of pain and symptom management, 39(2), 167-179.

The Role of Cannabinoids in Regulation of Nausea and Vomiting, and Visceral Pain. 

Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes. Current neuropharmacology, 4(3), 239.

Cannabinoid receptors and pain. Progress in neurobiology, 63(5), 569-611.

OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)

Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour.


Cannabinoid receptors as target for treatment of osteoporosis: A tale of two therapies (PubMed)

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 protects against age-related osteoporosis by regulating osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in marrow stromal cells (PubMed)

Cannabinoids and bone: Friend or foe? (PubMed)

The endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system in human osteoclasts: Possible involvement in bone formation and resorption (PubMed)

Endocannabinoids and the regulation of bone metabolism (PubMed)

Cannabinoid receptors and the regulation of bone mass (PubMed)

Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities.

Parkinson’s Disease

Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial (PubMed)

Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders (PubMed)

Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease (PubMed)

Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series (PubMed)

Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PubMed)

PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)

Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence (PubMed)

Enhancing cannabinoid neurotransmission augments the extinction of conditioned fear (PubMed)

Modulation of Fear Memory by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Cannabinoid Receptors (PubMed)

Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors (PubMed)

Stress switches cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor-dependent plasticity from LTD to LTP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (PubMed)

Multiple Sclerosis

Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Neuroprotection in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis by Cannabis-Based Cannabinoids.(PubMed)

Multiple Sclerosis International Federation. What is MS? London: Multiple Sclerosis International Federation [cited 16 Nov 2011].

Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis(PubMed)

Convance & Menzies Research Institute. Economic impact of multiple sclerosis in 2010: Australian MS Longitudinal Study. Prepared for MS Research Australia. North Ryde: Convance Pty Ltd; 2011.(PubMed)

Taylor BV, Lucas R, Dear K, Kilpatrick TJ, Pender MP, van der Mei IAF, et al. Latitudinal variance in incidence and type of first central nervous system demyelinating events. Multiple sclerosis 2010; 16(4):398-405. (PubMed)

Cannabinoids ameliorate disease progression in a model of multiple sclerosis in mice, acting preferentially through CB1 receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory effects.(PubMed)

Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial (PubMed)

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